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伊斯兰历法

2012-02-14 17:52:20 本文行家:muhammedmusa

你知道伊斯兰历法吗?

       以太阴运行计算年月和以迁徙(希吉来)之年为纪元的历法,或称希吉来历。

麦加麦加


  中国又称回历或回回历。为世界穆斯林所通用。公元622年9月24日穆罕默德率众由麦加迁到麦地那。第二任哈里发欧麦尔为纪念这一历史事件,规定将此 年定为伊斯兰教历元年,并为计算方便,将迁徙那一年的阿拉伯太阴历的岁首(相当于公元622年7月16日)改为教历元年元旦。

  阿拉伯历分太阳年(亦称宫份年)和太阴年(亦称月份年)两种。太阳年以太阳计年计月,叫做“不动的月”,供农事活动之用;太阴年以太阴计年计月,叫做 “动的月”,供宗教活动和历史纪年之用。伊斯兰教历的计算规律是,太阴圆缺1周为1月,历时29日12时44分2.8秒;太阴圆缺12周为1年,历时 354日8时48分33.6秒。其月份大小相等,单月为大建,30天;双月为小建,29天。全年354日。所余的8时48分33.6秒,积至3年左右﹐多 出1日﹐置于12月末﹐作为闰年,全年355日。该历以30年为一周期﹐每周期第 1﹑3﹑4﹑6﹑8﹑9﹑11﹑12﹑14﹑15﹑17﹑19﹑20﹑22﹑23﹑25﹑27﹑28﹑30等19年为平年;其余11年为闰年。

  伊斯兰教历各月的名称﹕1月﹐穆哈兰(Muharram);2月,赛法尔(Saphar);3月,赖比尔‧安外鲁(Rabia 1);4月﹐赖比尔‧ 阿赫勒(Rabia 2);5月,朱马达‧巫拉(Jomada 1)﹔6月,朱马达‧阿赫勒(Jomada 2);7月﹐来哲布(Rajab);8月﹐舍 尔邦(Shaaban);9月﹐莱麦丹(Ramadan);10月﹐闪瓦勒(Shawwa 1)﹔11月﹐祖勒‧盖尔德(Dulkaad);12月﹐祖 勒‧罕哲(Dulheggia)。由于该历以太阴计年计月,故比公历每年约少10天﹐3年约少1月﹐在公历32年中﹐该历已满33年。因此,该历各月在每 年里所处的季节不是固定的,经过约32年6个月循环一周。例如该历元年1月,合公元622年7月,这是夏季;第10年1月,合公元631年4月,这是春 季;第20年1月,合公元640年12月,这是冬季;第30年1月,合公元650年9月,这是秋季。依此循环,周而复始。

  此外﹐该历9月为伊斯兰教斋月﹐对这个月的起迄除了计算之外,还有看月的规定,即在8月第29日的傍晚,如见新月,翌日即为9月1日(进入斋期)﹐8 月仍为小建;否则,第3日为9月1日(进入斋期),8月变为大建。到了9月29日傍晚,亦须看月,如见新月﹐翌日即为10月1日(开斋节),使9月变为小 建﹔否则,斋戒再延1天﹐9月仍为大建。该历对昼夜的计算﹐以日落为一天之始,到次日太阳落时为一天,即黑夜在前,白昼在后,构成一天。

  伊斯兰教历自唐代随伊斯兰教传入中国后,对中国的天文﹑历法产生过重要影响。元﹑明﹑清时期,封建皇朝曾设置有关机构,如回回司天台(司天监)等,任 命穆斯林历算家研究回回历,使之配合中国历法,参照采用。迄今,中国穆斯林推算斋月﹑朝觐期及宗教节日﹐仍以该历为准。 (《中国大百科全书智能藏》之 「宗教」与「民族」科目光盘)

    The Muslim Era began in 622 with the Hijrah, or Emigration. Muhammad and his small band of followers left Makkah and traveled to Medinah. This event was adopted as the beginning of the Muslim Era in the Caliphate of 'Umar Ibn Al-Khattab, the second Caliph after Muhammad. The Muslim calendar is Lunar, its months being determined by the positions of the moon. Each year consists of twelve months, each month being 29 or 30 days in length depending on the position of the moon.

  It is considered a divine command to use a (Hijra) calendar with 12 (purely) lunar months without intercalation, as evident from the following verses of the Holy Quran (Translation: A. Yusuf Ali)   Al-Quran, Chapter 2 Al-Baqara, Verse 189   In the Name of Allah, The Benevolent, The Merciful   They ask thee concerning the New Moons, Say: They are but signs to mark fixed periods of time in (the affairs of) men and for Pilgrimage.   The Islamic year has twelve months that are based on a lunar cycle. Allah says in the Quran:   Al-Quran, Chapter 9 At-Tauba, Verse 36   In the Name of Allah, The Benevolent, The Merciful   The number of months in the sight of Allah is twelve (in a year) so ordained by Him the day He created the heavens and the earth; of them four are sacred; that is the straight usage. So wrong not yourselves therein and fight the pagans all together as they fight you all together. But know that Allah is with those who restrain themselves.   ~~~~~~~~   Al-Quran, Chapter 10 Yunus, Verse 5   In the Name of Allah, The Benevolent, The Merciful   "It is He Who made the sun to be a shining glory, and the moon to be a light of beauty, and measured out stages for it, that you might know the number of years and the count of time. Allah did not create this except in truth and righteousness. And He explains His signs in detail, for those who understand"   In his final sermon before his death, the Prophet Muhammad said, among other things, "With Allah the months are twelve; four of them are holy; three of these are successive and one occurs singly between the months of Jumaada and Sha'ban."   Islamic months begin at sunset, on the day when the lunar crescent is visually sighted. The lunar year is approximately 354 days long, so the months rotate backward through the seasons and are not fixed to the Gregorian calendar. The months of the Islamic year are:   The Islamic calendar is named Hijri calendar and is a lunar calendar. It contains 12 months that are based on the motion of the moon, and because 12 lunar months is 12 x 29.53=354.36 days, the Islamic calendar is consistently shorter (11 Days) than a solar year, and therefore it shifts with respect to the Gregorian calendar.   The Islamic calendar is the official calendar in countries in the Middle East and North Africa , especially Saudi Arabia. But other Muslim countries use the Gregorian calendar for civil purposes and turn to the Islamic calendar for religious purposes.   Which months are there in an Islamic year?   1. Muharram 7. Rajab   2. Safar 8. Sha'ban   3. Rabi' al-awwal 9. Ramadan   4. Rabi' al-thani 10. Shawwal   5. Jumada al-awwal 11. Dhu al-Qi'dah   6. Jumada al-thani 12. Dhu al-Hijjah   What are the days called in an Islamic Week?   ???????? As-Sabt - To rest ?????? Al-Ahad - Day Onefrom the Arabic 'one' - wahid ?????????? Al- 'ithnayn - Day Twofrom the Arabic 'two' - ithnayn   ???????????Ath-Thulatha - Day Threefrom the Arabic 'three' - thalatha ???????????Al-'Arba'aa - Day Fourfrom the Arabic 'four' - arba'aa ?????????Al-Khamees - Day Fivefrom the Arabic 'five' - khamsah   ?????????? Al-Jum'ah - Day of Gathering   Current Islamic Month   Dates in blue are from the Gregorian calendar and the ones in red are hijri (Islamic) dates.   Current Moon Phase (Live)   CURRENT MOON moon phase   How an Islamic month develops   Each month starts when the lunar crescent is first seen after a new moon.   Although new moons may be calculated quite precisely, the actual visibility of the crescent is difficult to predict. It depends on factors such as weather, the optical properties of the atmosphere, and the location of the observer. Therefore in some cases it may be difficult to give accurate information in advance about when a new month will start.   Furthermore, in some areas Muslims depend on a local sighting of the moon, whereas in other areas a universal sighting is accepted. (i.e. if a new crescent is seen anywhere in the world it is accepted for communities the world over). Both are valid Islamic practices, but they may lead to different starting days for the months.   How can we calculate the Islamic era?   Years are counted since the Hijra, that is, Prophet Mohammed's migration to Medina, which is assumed to have taken place 16 July C.E. 622 (Julian calendar). On that date AH 1 started (AH = Anno Hegirae = year of the Hijra).   Important Islamic Dates   Importance Date   Hajj - Pilgrimage to Mecca 1st Zul-Hijjah   Eid-ul-Adha - Feast of sacrifice 10th- Zul-Hijjah   Hijri - Islamic New Year 1st Muharram   A'ashoora - Martyrdom of Imam Hussein - Grandson of Prophet Mohammed 10th Muharram   Birth Date of Prophet Mohammed 12th Rabi-Al-Awwal   Isra'a & Mir'aj - Prophet Mohammed ascension to Heaven. 27th Rajab   Ramadan - First day of fasting 1st Ramadan   Lailatul Qadr - Night of Power When Qur'an was revealed. Found in one of the following nights:23rd, 25th, 27th or 29th of Ramadan   Eid-ul-Fitr - End of Ramadan celebration 1st Shawwal

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